Though in most data warehousing applications no relevance is given to the time when events are recorded, some domains call for a different behavior.
In particular, whenever late measurements of events take place, and particularly when the events registered are subject to further updates, the traditional design solutions fail in preserving accountability and query consistency.
In this article, we discuss the alternative design solutions that can be adopted, in presence of late measurements, to support different types of queries that enable meaningful historical analysis.
These solutions are based on the enforcement of the distinction between transaction time and valid time within the schema that represents the fact of interest. Besides, we provide a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the solutions proposed, aimed at enabling well-informed design decisions.

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